Are you referring to the question types of an existing survey? (i.e. changing a text field to select_multiple)
If so, you can only achieve that by republishing the survey, and doing so will unfortunately cause you to lose any existing records that have already been collected.
See the "Update Surveys" section of this documentation to see what you can and can't change in a survey in order to preserve already collected data.
If you are using Survey123 Connect, just update the question 'type' (from 'text' to 'select_one list_name' or 'select_multiple list_name') and republish. Its still a string type field so there is no issue. You are not changing the field type or schema, just the way the question is presented in the survey form. There should be no loss of data - easy enough to make a backup of your data before making the change.
I don't really use web forms, so not sure if the process is the same or not.