With domains generated by ArcGIS Online, choice_filter mysteriously does not work. Without a choice_filter, the choices display correctly. Here's a way to reproduce this problem:
Observe that no values are displayed for example_subtype no matter type's value.
Observe that no values are displayed for example_subtype, no matter type's value.
Observe that values are correctly filtered for example_subtype.
*edit: I originally generalized my field names to Type and Subtype, but those are keywords.
I'm confused - how are you able to create a fields with the name Type and Subtype - they are not allowed as it conflicts with an SQL keyword. This might be causing more complex issues than what you're describing.
Sorry, those weren't actually my field names and I didn't realize they were keywords. I just generalized them for the example. I used fields sign_group (type) and sign_type (subtype). I'll edit the original post.
The domains generated by ArcGIS Online have hyphens in them. This Survey123 Quick Reference doesn't exactly say, "Don't use hyphens in choice list_names", but it comes close. I did a very small test where I changed one of my list_choices from "sign_dimensions" to "sign-dimensions", and the choice filter stopped working. I'll go ahead and report this as a bug.