I had an installation hiccup when trying to go from macOS to Windows. The SDK was installed and I could build against it with qmake finding the ArcGIS `.pri` file. However, upon running I got a `module "Esri.ArcGISRuntime" is not installed` failure.
I noticed that Qt Creator in macOS showed ArcGIS as an option when creating new projects, but the Qt Creator on Windows did not. This pointed toward a failed installation.
It's all resolved now, just posting this here in case others have a similar issue.