This error message has been seen by a couple of our staff. It occurs when trying to publish a tile layer to AGOL from Pro (2.3) using the 'share as web layer workflow' . The users have the right roles permissions to publish tiles so its a bit of a mystery. Seems to only be an issue for tile layers not feature layers
In your Organization's ArcGIS Online account, check the user permissions under Settings > Member Roles and make sure that the box for "Publish Hosted Tile Layers" is checked.
Additionally, make sure that the Organization account has enough credits to publish the layer, and that the user has enough credits allocated to them for use.
Hope this helps!
I can't test this right now but I think the issue must be that these users do not have a credit allocation. We create the cache locally so no credits are used when publishing. Ideally Pro should let you publish if you have no credits as long as you are creating a local tile cache.
Just to confirm, if the user has no agol credits assigned to their account they will not be able to publish a tile layer even if you are creating the cache locally which doesn't use credits. This is with Pro 2.4