You will probably found this information useful : take care to import cordova api before ArcGIS API in your html head.
Esri fulfill dojo/has with an esri-phonegap tag and use it in esri/request to choose between dojo/io/script or dojo/xhr method.
When using dojo/io/script method, the request is blocked by Windows Runtime security policy :
APPHOST9601: "Can’t load remoteURI. An app can’t load remote web content in the local context."