It's not just other libraries you can use with the JS API, but there are resources to write your apps in TypeScript. I haven't really delved into using PureScript or ClojureScript with the JS API, although there might be a path with ClojureScript, and some post-processing that could be done with PureScript... maybe.
The point of all this is that there are lots of resources out there for Esri devs to learn from. Whether you're a novice or a pro, I'm sure you'll find something out there that can help you out.
For more geodev tips and tricks, check out my blog.