As opposed to QGIS, ArcGIS Desktop + Pro do not store or use extent information when storing feature classes in a GeoPackage. The following screenshot is from a GeoPackage gpkg_contents table where the first 3 feature classes where created by QGIS and the last one by ArcGIS Desktop.
When adding a GeoPackage feature class with many hundreds of thousands of features to ArcMap as a feature layer, it takes quite a long time to calculate its extent. This could be avoided if ArcMap used the extent information from the gpkg_contents table instead. Therefore, all ArcGIS applications should write this information to the GeoPackage and use it when accessing the data.