With the advent of ArcGIS Pro, some new advantages for creating and publishing tile caches were introduced. The ability to create Vector Tile Packages (.vtpk) are particularly impressive; however, the inability to utilize an ArcGIS Pro Project's (.aprx) 'Map' object as the input for the arcpy.GenerateTileCacheTilingScheme_management function is quite limiting.
At present, I've had to create two separate scripts -- one to run ArcGIS Desktop's Python 2.7 distribution with the 'mapping' module and the other to run ArcGIS Pro's Python 3.x distribution with the *updated* 'mp' module -- in order to programmatically add layers from a data source into an Map Document (.mxd) and subsequently create/publish a Vector Tile Package from the mxd's layers.
Instead of switching between Python environments, it is recommended to allow the ArcGIS Project's 'Map' objects as the 'in_dataset' for the arcpy.GenerateTileCacheTilingScheme_management function.
Furthermore, the ability to create Vector Tile Packages from Annotation Feature Classes would be ideal, as I've not found a way to work around this.