(this is being submitted on behalf of a customer)
In ArcMap, there was "validation" on the editor toolbar, but there is no "validation" check which is available with ArcGIS Pro Basic license.
When I set the range domain, sometimes I can enter the numbers out of the range; for example when I use "Calculate Field" tool to input the values.
Without checking tool which is available with Basic license, users cannot prevent the data inconsistency.
The original issue, where invalid values were allowed to be entered that were outside of a range, was resolved multiple releases ago.
For the part about the Calculate Field tool to honor domains, see Field Calculator Should Honor Domains