It is difficult to use a WFS with thousends of features in ArcMap. It should be possible to use a spatial filter method with an additional Feature layer, such as administrative boarders. The method should be similar to the "select by Location" method. You can choose one or several features of the layer to filter the results of the WFS. That would be an excellent extension for the "search envelope" in the WFS parameters.
This idea has been marked by Kory Kramer as a Duplicate of WFS show only features in visible extent as the underlying idea is the same - limited number of WFS features loaded based on a user-specified extent (polygon, visible extent, etc.) Please visit that idea, up vote, and add specific requirements or variations on the idea to the Comments.