More information on Amazon CloudFront:
ArcGIS Enterprise inherently supports secure content which requires a token to access. This content is not a good candidate for caching, as it changes frequently and each user obtains a different token. This will make all requests forward to the origin instead of being served from the edge cache.
ArcGIS Enterprise servers a mix of dynamic and static content. When adding a CDN in front of ArcGIS Enterprise it is important to understand the different type of content that should be cached. If we cache content that is meant to be dynamic, errors may occur in your applications. Below you can find a breakdown of the context paths and the associated content for both Portal for ArcGIS and ArcGIS Server.
|Static Content (context path)||Dynamic Content (context path)|
|Portal JS Files (portal/home/10.7.1/*)||Sharing API (portal/sharing/*)|
|Portal HTML Files (portal/*.html)||Portal Admin (portal/portaladmin/*)|
|Portal Image Files (portal/home/images/*)|
* The above examples all use a Web Adaptor name "portal". If you named your web adaptor something different, replace the "portal" with you web adaptor name
|Static Content||Dynamic Content|
|Tiled Services (server/rest/services/<Service Name>/MapServer/tile/*)||Sharing API (server/sharing/*)|
|Select Queries from Map Services *|
* The above examples all use a Web Adaptor name "server". If you named your web adaptor something different, replace the "server" with you web adaptor name
There are three steps to deploying your ArcGIS Enterprise with CloudFront. The first step is creating the distribution and specifying what the default behavior for the cache is. This step is critical, as it allows dynamic content to pass thru the edge servers and onto the origin. The second step is adding additional cache behaviors. This step provides the ability to cache specific path patterns from the distribution. The final step is to map the existing DNS Record Set to the CloudFront distribution CNAME.
Note: The Origin Domain Name will be the Load Balancer or Server that your ArcGIS Enterprise is accessible from. In this example we use the an Application Load Balancer but other properties are supported here as well. CloudFront will forward requests to this location when populating it's edge cache.
3. Point your DNS records to the CloudFront CNAME
This is a continuation of The Path from GIS Manager to GIS Leader - Part 2.
It is time to bring this all together...in Part 1 of The Path from GIS Manager to GIS Leader, I mentioned how rebranding can help you change your image from mapmaker to enterprise IT solution provider. This rebranding can be applied to two areas, job titles and department names. Here are some real example job titles from GIS practitioners that have rebranded:
The ultimate accomplishment of all of this is to create a new strategic executive position that is above the GIS Manager and reports to a top executive. This is key, as guiding the strategic direction of enterprise GIS to enable location intelligence across the organization is a full-time job. The GIS Manager position should focus on the operations, managing the GIS staff and projects. While this goal of creating this new executive position may seem impossible, there is evidence to the contrary. If executives see value and potential for more value in technology, they can, and will, create new full-time executive positions to lead these critical initiatives.
When enterprise technology was first implemented at most organizations, the first step was to create something like a Chief Technology Officer (CTO). As enterprise technology expanded, and with it, the value it provided to the organization, additional positions are being created, like Chief Innovation Officer (CIO), Chief Data Officer (CDO), and Chief Analytics Officer (CAO). If the lead executive can understand the full potential and value of Location Intelligence and GIS, they will create a Chief Geospatial Officer (CGO). If this is not possible in your organization, it is possible to move up above the GIS Manager position to gain increased access and ability to affect change and expand the use of GIS. Here are more than thirty real examples of GIS practitioners that have done this from across the US, Canada, and Australia:
Here's an interesting point for those that are GIOs, some GIOs report to the CIO/CTO, but some report directly to another executive. I think this is an important point to make that who you report to can often offer insight to the importance executives put in your position. For instance, Joseph Sloop, the GIO at Forsyth Co., NC, reports to the County Manager. This shows that the top executive in that organization values that position so much, that they want to personally direct their work. Additionally, there are some examples of GIS leaders that may not have the leadership titles, but still are valued enough to report directly to top executives. This is the case for the following positions:
What I'm trying to do here is show examples of how your peers are changing their role in the organization to improve their personal professional development as well as increase the value of GIS. Use them as inspiration to do the same, change from GIS Manager to GIS Leader.
There is a tremendous opportunity for you as a GIS practitioner to move up in your organization and transition from GIS Manager to GIS Leader. This is a valuable endeavor as it improves you personally and professionally as well as your organization. Remember that your colleagues want your help and need your help, they just don't know it. Reach out to them, be proactive, sell them on the value of spatial analytics and location intelligence. Enable them to use the technology themselves with easy-to-use apps that work on any device, anywhere, at any time. Even though your job description may not include working on the five pillars of location intelligence (Strategy, Organization, Technology & Data, Culture and Literacy), make sure you are dedicating time to all of them, the people funding the enterprise GIS (taxpayers, shareholders, donors) deserve the ultimate level of return on investment and this means maximizing the capabilities of the ArcGIS platform and expanding the number of users.
Don't try to do this alone, reach out to Esri, our distributors, and our partners, as well as your peers and professional network. Learn from the examples of your peers that are doing this. Get some non-GIS training on subjects like management, leadership, IT, and business. Remember that GIS is not about maps, it's about digital transformation. Align your work to helping the business and to what the leaders at the top deem important, that's how to create value.
You can find additional resources related to this topic here. Please reach out to me if you'd like to connect, I enjoy helping others in this important transition. You can find me here on GeoNet as well as Twitter and LinkedIn.
This is a continuation of The Path from GIS Manager to GIS Leader - Part 1
The five pillars of Location Intelligence from the Esri Canada and IDC report, Winning with Location Intelligence: The Essential Practices.
The second of my important numbers (64, 76, 78, 84, 84) based on my research of 800+ GIS practitioners across the United State over the last two years, refers to the second pillar of location intelligence, Organization:
76% of organizations that use GIS do not have formal governance in place
While Organization covers many aspects of enterprise GIS, let's focus on Governance. In this context, governance refers to the organizational structure for GIS within the organization. GIS governance is a critical ingredient for any successful enterprise GIS. If your organization does not have formal GIS governance, you should consider creating it. Here are some resources to assist:
You should also reach out to your Esri Account Team for assistance and other examples of successful enterprise GIS governance.
The third of my important numbers mentioned above, refers to the third pillar of location intelligence, Technology & Data:
78% of GIS practitioners have not read the Architecting the ArcGIS Platform: Best Practices document
While Technology & Data covers a wide area, let's focus on Best Practices. This Architecting the ArcGIS Platform: Best Practices document is one of the most important documents produced by Esri, and it is updated at least three times a year. Following and implementing best practices are another key ingredient to a successful enterprise GIS. They are called best practices for a reason. They are designed to help you learn from the missteps of others. Many of the best practices in this document follow those established by the IT industry. By implementing these best practices, your GIS will become stronger, more stable and effective. Please work with your Esri Account Team to implement those that are applicable to your organization.
The fourth of my important numbers refers to the fourth pillar of location intelligence, Culture:
84% of organizations that use GIS do not have, and maintain, a Change Management Plan
While Culture covers a wide area, let's focus on Change Management. According to Prosci, Change Management is the discipline that guides how we prepare, equip and support individuals to successfully adopt change in order to drive organizational success and outcomes. The biggest challenge for a successful implementation is not the technology, it's the people. The technology is the easy part. You can deploy the best GIS app ever, but if nobody uses it, it's of no value. Change management can really help technology adoption. According to Prosci, organizations that combine a people-focused change management plan with a project plan are up to six times more likely to achieve their project goals. Here are some resources to help you implement Change Management:
Please work with your Esri Account Team and our Esri Change Management Consulting to learn more about GIS and Change Management.
The fifth of my important numbers refers to the fifth pillar of location intelligence, Literacy:
84% of organizations that use GIS do not have, and maintain, a Workforce Development Plan
While Literacy covers a wide area, let's focus on Workforce Development. GIS is changing rapidly. Everyone that uses GIS in an organization should be receiving some GIS training annually. Getting financial support for training can be a challenge, as can figuring out what GIS training options to take in what order. As an Esri customer, you have access to an Esri Training Consultant. These Training Consultants can create a custom workforce development plan for you at no cost. This plan will create learning pathways for each GIS user in your organization based on their roles, responsibilities and use of ArcGIS technology. Once you have a workforce development plan, it can help you get budget to support this critical need. There are also a collection of Learning Plans available on the Esri Training website. Contact your Esri Account Team to get connected to your Training Consultant.
This discussion continues in Part 3...
Over the last ten years as technology has evolved, especially cloud and mobile devices, ArcGIS has transformed from a collection of software that runs on different devices, to a fully integrated cloud platform that allows the GIS practitioner to easily share their work with anyone, anywhere, anytime, on any device. This transformation has changed the role of the GIS Manager, from managing a team of GIS practitioners that did all of the GIS work, to that of an enterprise IT system leader that focuses on enabling anyone inside, or outside the organization, to directly use GIS technology to make better decisions and do their job. The GIS community has failed to keep up with this transformation in a few ways.
In this article from Directions Magazine on May 15, 2019, GIS Jobs: Current Industry Expectations, you can see that their research of 1,000 GIS job ads from September 2018 to January 2019 shows that the most common attributes for a GIS Manager/Coordinator position include:
Those requirements do not represent the skills required by the modern GIS Manager of a cloud-enabled enterprise IT system. The requirements now are more focused on enterprise IT system management, business, strategy, governance, innovation, marketing, change management, and workforce development. Due to this disconnect, where most GIS manager positions are defined incorrectly, there is an atmosphere of unawareness as to what they should be doing. This has led to a chronic underutilization of enterprise GIS in most organizations that have the technology. This trend of underutilization can be supported by the following documents:
This trend of underutilization has led to an outdated image of most GIS practitioners as mapmakers. While mapmaking is a valuable and treasured skill, if an organization has an enterprise GIS implemented, the GIS practitioners should be doing a lot more than just making maps. If the non-GIS practitioners in the organization think the GIS practitioners only make maps, that is all they will ask for. The problem is, they want help, and need help from the GIS practitioners to apply spatial analytics to their mission, they just don't know that they can help them in this manner.
One of the first things an enterprise GIS manager needs to do is change this image. There are a few ways to do this. Internal marketing and education is one way. One easy way to start to work on this is to change your elevator pitch. Many GIS practitioners when asked what they do for a living say, "I make maps." or "I do GIS, it's like Google Maps." This prolongs the mapmaker image, therefore it is crucial that you change your elevator pitch to something like, "I help people use the power of location to make better decisions."
Rebranding is another way, there is a growing movement for GIS practitioners changing their job titles and the name of their department to remove the term "GIS" from them, to distance themselves from the mapmaker image. Examples of this include Decision Analytics, Spatial Analytics, Location Intelligence, Geospatial Intelligence, GeoAnalytics, and Location Innovative Services.
Another part of internal marketing and education is proactively changing your communication focus with non-GIS users. Most GIS users tend to focus on the technology in their communication with non-GIS users. This is not an effective mode of communication, you need to communicate with non-GIS users in ways that interest them in what you can do to help them. The best way to do this is to shift the communication focus to capabilities. A capability is "the power or ability to do something" according to Lexico powered by Oxford. Adding capabilities to an organization and its staff will interest executives and managers. The capability that GIS can enable is best described as location intelligence. Watch this short video for a definition of location intelligence.
Enabling a new capability, like location intelligence, for an organization and its workers, is very different than implementing technology. In 2019, Esri Canada released a report they developed with IDC called Winning with Location Intelligence: The Essential Practices. This report identifies best practices for how to be successful with location intelligence. They surveyed two hundred organizations across Canada in all industries. These organizations had five hundred or more employees. They analyzed their use of location intelligence and identified common best practices. They categorize these best practices into what they call the five pillars of location intelligence.
These five pillars of location intelligence help us understand in more detail the skills required of an enterprise GIS manager. You can see that you cannot spend all of your time on Technology & Data. You must dedicate time and effort to the other four. My research shows that the majority of organizations that have implemented GIS are not spending time in these other four areas. Here are five important numbers that will be revealed in this blog series:
64, 76, 78, 84, 84
Starting with the first of the five pillars of location intelligence, Strategy, why is a strategy so important? In this article from McKinsey & Company entitled, Catch them if you can: How leaders in data and analytics have pulled ahead, their survey of over five hundred C-level executives and senior managers representing a full range of regions, industries and sizes showed that:
The creation of a strategy now ranks as the number one challenge to, and reason for, companies' success at data and analytics...
Once you realize you need a strategic plan, you may encounter resistance from executives regarding the dedication of resources to the development of a strategic plan. If that is the case, here is a great article from Matt Lewin of Esri Canada, Why organizations need a geospatial strategy: An executive perspective.
Here's the first of my important numbers, based on my research of 800+ GIS practitioners across the United States over the last two years:
64% of organizations that use GIS do not have, and maintain, a GIS Strategic Plan
What is a Geospatial Strategy?
A Geospatial Strategy is a business-oriented plan that defines how an organization will use GIS to achieve its goals. An effective geospatial strategy connects your business needs with the right people, processes and technology to help you overcome challenges and improve results.
When creating a Geospatial Strategy, it is critical that you focus on the business, not the technology. Your objective is to focus your work on assisting the business. You do this by first identifying and understanding what the business goals are, these should be documented in strategic plans, initiatives, Key Performance Indicators, etc. Then you identify and understand the challenges that the organization is facing that are keeping it from achieving the goals. Then you deploy GIS solutions that overcome the challenges so the goals are achieved. This results in real business value of GIS.
For more information on the Esri Best Practices on how to create a Geospatial Strategy, please check out this document, The Approach to Maximize Impact and be sure to contact your Esri Account Team.
This discussion continues in Part 2...