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1st Edition of TecGEO.ORG: Spatial Data Infrastructures and Geospatial Intelligence MOOC
We are about to begin this journey and invite all interested parties to attend this entirely free course that addresses critical issues in the current era related to Geospatial Intelligence and Spatial Data Infrastructures. More information here: Miriada X - TecGEO.ORG: MOOC de Infra-estruturas de Dados Espaciais e Inteligência Geoespacial 

 

1ª Edição do TecGEO.ORG: MOOC de Infraestruturas de Dados Espaciais e Inteligência Geoespacial

Estamos prestes a iniciar esta viagem e convidamos todos os interessados a assistir a este curso inteiramente gratuito que pretende abordar questões cruciais na era atual, relacionadas com a Inteligência Geoespacial e Infraestruturas de Dados Espaciais. Mais informações aqui: Miriada X - TecGEO.ORG: MOOC de Infra-estruturas de Dados Espaciais e Inteligência Geoespacial 

 

The Geospatial Intelligence Certificateaccredited by the United States Geospatial Intelligence Foundation (USGIF), provides education and training in scientific concepts, methods and key geospatial technologies, used in the solution of global problems of human security, including natural disasters, humanitarian crisis, environmental risks, military operations, political violence, public health and challenges in access to food.

The goal of this program is to train managers and staff to apply knowledge of earth image processing/remote sensing, geographic information science, computer science, and analytic processes to geospatial intelligence as well as select, use, synthesize, and demonstrate the techniques, skills, and tools necessary to solve geospatial intelligence problems.

This program lasts 3 semesters. The classes start in February 2018 and run after working hours (after 6:30 p.m.), 2 to 3 times a week.

The Study Plan consists of 7 course units (60 ECTS), of which 3 are mandatory and held in the classroom:

  • Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT)
  • Globalization and Security Risks
  • Social Network Intelligence

For detailed information about the Study Plan, please click here.

The applications are online, in NOVA IMS' Applications Portal, from April 4th to May 11th, 2017, where the applicants must fill the form in this platform and upload their Curriculum Vitae.

Abstract

 

Existing investments in land administration have been built on legacy approaches, have been fragmented and have not delivered the required pervasive changes and improvements at scale. The solutions have not helped the most needy - the poor and disadvantaged that have no security of tenure.

 

The ‘Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Guiding Principles’ is primarily designed to allow a range of stakeholders in developing countries to understand the overall Fit-For-Purpose approach and recognize the benefits of adopting this approach. It provides structured guidance on building the spatial, legal and institutional frameworks in support of designing the country specific strategies for implementing Fit-for-Purpose land administration. However, it is not an instruction manual but offers guiding principles which provide direction and guidance for designing a country specific strategy for implementation.

Thought you might find this interesting:

http://www.scoop.it/t/everything-is-related-to-everything-else/p/4053945192/2015/10/22/maptiks-mapping-analytics-software

via Scoop.it

 

Web map analytics currently supporting LeafletJS, OpenLayers 3 and

GoogleMapsAPI. Build and optimize your web maps with detailed consumer

insights.

 

Enjoy!

 

Fernando Gil

 

http://scholar.google.pt/citations?user=KQNVYH8AAAAJ&hl=en

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Fernando_Gil4

https://www.linkedin.com/in/fernandojpgil

https://twitter.com/fpgi

My Master's Thesis presentation (https://lnkd.in/epp-fpt) at Lisbon's ESRI Portugal Users Conference (EUE 2015) can be found here: Fernando Gil - Master Thesis Public Presentation (25/7/2014) 32c87808-ef29-4fb7-96b0-223a648650e8-medium.jpeg

Vou apresentar a minha Tese de Mestrado (https://lnkd.in/epp-fpt) no Encontro de Utilizadores da Esri Portugal (EUE 2015) em Lisboa, no dia 8 de Outubro, na sala 3, pelas 12 horas (https://lnkd.in/efpDKJw). Apareçam! // I will present my Master's Thesis (https://lnkd.in/epp-fpt) at Lisbon's ESRI Portugal Users Conference (EUE 2015) on 8 October, in Room 3, at 12 hours (https://lnkd.in/efpDKJw).

The NOVA IMS´S degrees are aimed to train senior professionals and make them prepared to face the challenges and to perform all the functions required by the new information society in an open, globalized and competitive market were they will be operating in their future.

 

Post-Graduate and Master Degree in Science and GIS The post-graduate and master degree in C & SIG aims to train managers and technicians able to lead and guide the conception and development of GIS systems adapted to the demands of companies, public or private institutions. The implementation of the degree utilizes an innovative way of teaching, which is the first fully master the distance assigned by a Portuguese University. This course is aimed at all those interested in extending their studies throughout life, regardless of their location or other constraints existing in classroom learning.

 

Now with a new course on Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) at NOVA IMS, Lisbon, Portugal (Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT): Sumári...)

 

Call for Applications (2nd phase)  April 7th to May 14th, 2015. Please see more at | NOVA IMS - Information Management School - Universidade Nova de Lisboa

NOVA IMS' Master degree program in Geographic Information Systems and Science functions both in e-learning or b-learning formats, and in Portuguese. It trains experts and managers to lead and guide the design and development of Geographic Information Systems and Science tailored for the needs of enterprises and public and private institutions.

For the conclusion of the curricular component (1st Year), the students complete 60 ECTS, of which 7,5 are mandatory, corresponding to the course unit Geographic Information Systems and Science. The elective courses will be chosen, by the student, from the following course units: GIS Applications, Spatial Databases, Cartographic Sciences, Introduction to Geostatistics, GI Standards, Remote Sensing, Geostatistics, Data Mining Geo-Espacial, Data Analysis, DataBase Management Systems, GIS and Modelling, Geospatial Data Mining, GIS in Organizations, Remote Sensing, Geospatial Free Open Source Software, GIS Programming, Geographic Databases and Geospatial Web Services, Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT).

 

I highlight among all courses the newest one: Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) (click on the link to get it's syllabus).

 

For detailed information about the study programs, click here. Please see the image above for E-learning format's study plan.

 

Capture.PNG

Find more information about NOVA IMS' postgraduate and master programs at http://www.novaims.unl.pt/cursos  

Crowdsourced Geospatial Data (CGD), or volunteered geographic information (VGI) as coined by professor Michael F. Goodchild (1) could be seen as (...) a special case of the more general Web phenomenon of usergenerated content (...).

 

According to Coleman, advances in personal positioning, Web mapping, cellular communications and wiki technologies have surpassed the original visions of the architects of spatial data infrastructure programs around the world. Using GPS-based cellphones and personal navigations systems, people now view their own position (and those of others) in real time on a backdrop of georeferenced maps and/or imagery. Similarly, they can share location information describing points of interest, places visited, recent construction, and corrections to out-of-date feature attributes. This capability to "view and provide contributions in context" is fundamental to the vision of a spatially enabled society. (2) and (3)

 

Furthermore, within Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), Citizen Science stands out as a class of activities that require special attention and analysis. Citizen science is likely to be the longest running of VGI activities, with some projects showing continuous effort over a century. (4)

 

In summary, user-generated content (UGC) platforms on the Internet have experienced a steep increase in data contributions in recent years. The ubiquitous usage of location-enabled devices, such as smartphones, allows contributors to share their geographic information on a number of selected online portals (6).

 

Moreover, Goodchild, recalling the experience of Wikimapia, claims that the experience of Wikimapia seems to be that accurate, large-scale information resources can be created from volunteer action. Wikimapia's accuracy varies and is most problematic for the more obscure entries that are not accessed very often. Similarly, I think VGI will be most accurate when it concerns the largest, most prominent, and most important features on the earth's surface (7)

 

In the last cited work (7), Goodchild points out that volunteers with specialist knowledge to monitor information; a similar approach to geographic information that relied on local specialists could work very well to clean out errors.

 

Thus, according to (Tatem, 2014) (8), for example, in the event of a natural disaster, disease outbreak, terrorist attack or conflict, knowing where people are and how many may be affected is vital for planning a response. But these population distribution details are largely drawn from a census – typically undertaken only every ten years (the most recent in the UK was in 2011), which means that without other sources of information the details quickly become inaccurate or incomplete.

 

Concluding, CGD / VGI, or locational crowdsourcing - where citizen volunteers contribute data that's georeferenced, then disseminated - is particularly useful in emergency applications because the information's timeliness is especially valuable (5), thus having a huge impact in GEOINT's future role. But, we must keep in mind that "bad information can always be dressed up to look good" as Goodchild states in previous cited work (7), and of course, that's true for what ever source might the information came from.


1 - Goodchild, M. (2007). Citizens as Censors:  the World of Volunteered Geography. [online] Available at:
http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/projects/vgi/docs/position/Goodchild_VGI2007.pdf[Accessed 3 Feb. 2015]

2 - Coleman, David (2012). [online] Available at:
http://www.gsdi.org/gsdiconf/gsdi12/papers/905.pdf [Accessed 3 Feb. 2015]

3 - Coleman, David et all (2009).Ijsdir.jrc.ec.europa.eu

International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research, 2009, Vol. 4, 332-358. [online] Available at: http://ijsdir.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.php/ijsdir/article/viewFile/140/223 [Accessed 3 Feb. 2015]

4 - Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of

participation in Sui, D.Z., Elwood, S. and M.F. Goodchild (eds.), 2013. Crowdsourcing Geographic

Knowledge: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in Theory and Practice . Berlin: Springer. pp

105-122 DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-4587-2_7 [online] Available at: https://povesham.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/haklaycrowdsourcinggeographicknowledge.pdf [Accessed 3 Feb. 2015]

5 - Esri ArcWatch March 2011 - Volunteered Geographic Information Plays Critical Role in Crises Esri.com, (2011). Esri ArcWatch March 2011 - Volunteered Geographic Information Plays Critical Role in Crises. [online] Available at: http://www.esri.com/news/arcwatch/0311/power-of-vgi.html [Accessed 3 Feb. 2015]

6 - Neis, Pascal; Zielstra, Dennis. 2014. "Recent Developments and Future Trends in Volunteered Geographic Information Research: The Case of OpenStreetMap." Future Internet 6, no. 1: 76-106.

7 - The Role of Volunteered Geographic Information in a Postmodern GIS World. Goodchild, M. (2010). [online] Available at: http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0410/vgi.html [Accessed 3 Feb. 2015]

8 - How mobiles could aid disaster response - Agenda - The World Economic Forum, Tatem, Andrew (2014). [online] Available at: https://agenda.weforum.org/2014/11/how-mobiles-could-aid-disaster-response/ [Accessed 3 Feb. 2015]

Future Developments

According to (Bennett, et al., 2011) new drivers impacting on the nature of role of future cadastres were discussed under the categories of political drivers, environmental drivers, technological drivers, and socio-economic. Globalisation, population urbanization, good governance, climate-change response, environmental management, 3D visualization/ analysis technologies, WSNs, standardization, and interoperability were found to be critical factors driving developments in the cadastral domain. Based on these drivers, six design elements of future cadastre emerged: Survey-Accurate Cadastres, Object-Oriented Cadastres, 3D/4D Cadastres (example presented in Figure 43), Real-Time Cadastres, Global Cadastres, and Organic Cadastres. Together, these elements provide a potential vision for the role and nature of future cadastres.

Figure 43 - Augmented reality view of right and restriction boundaries in 3D (LINZ, 2014)

Moreover, I would like to highlight the theses exposed in (Comtesse & Pauletto, 2012) article “Cadastre: Vision for the Future. The Impact of New Dimensions”, which identify six major trends that will most likely have an influence on the vision of cadastre and influence the entire evolution of the field in which the cadastre operates, according to the previous cited authors:

  • Thesis 1: The cadastre will include the third dimension of the landscape and of the objects beyond the current legal framework.
  • Thesis 2: The cadastre will blend the strategic map and the dynamic map of the land to show its historical evolution. Both views will evolve independently.
  • Thesis 3:The cadastre will be multifunctional and multijurisdictional.
  • Thesis 4:Social networks will transform the cadastre.
  • Thesis 5:New commons will emerge as a referenced object of the cadastre.
  • Thesis 6:The cadastre will become an essential element of knowledge society.

 

Future activities need to take into account emerging trends in geospatial information and the new opportunities they present for the application of spatial technologies and geographic information (Steudler & Rajabifard, 2012). According to the previous cited FIG nº 58 report (Steudler & Rajabifard, 2012) these trends include (but are not limited to):

 

  • location as the fourth element of decision-making;
  • differentiating between authoritative and volunteered (including crowdsourced) information, yet recognising the importance and value of both types of information towards spatial enablement and the enrichment of societies;
  • changing directions: simple to complex, autonomous to interdependent, spatial ubiquity;
  • growing awareness for openness of data e.g. licensing, and resultant improvements in data quality;
  • move towards service provision; and
  • recognizing the difference between spatial enablement and spatial dependency.

 

However lately, according to (Bennett, 2012), it seems that a paradigm shift is taking place - at least amongst geospatial and land administration professionals. There is now wide agreement that full title with accurately surveyed boundaries should not be attempted upfront in many contexts. The concept of the 'continuum of land rights' has taken hold: a staged or phased approach to delivering more secure land rights is needed. From a land administration perspective, this means, in the short term, that we need to develop and utilise faster, cheaper and more fit-for-purpose land administration designs. The range of new approaches and tools is emerging at a rapid pace. Tools already available include:

 

  • The social tenure domain model (STDM) - a design approach that enables the capture of non-traditional forms of land tenure. The model is already implemented in off-the shelf software packages.
  • Point cadastre - a fast cadastral approach that captures a single coordinate (potentially captured using handheld GNSS) to represent a parcel rather than a complete set of surveyed boundaries.
  • Digital pen - a tool that greatly reduces transcription processes between the field and office, thus reducing errors and speeding up recordation time.
  • Crowdsourced cadastre (or Cadastre 2.0) - an approach where citizens are trained to undertake adjudication, demarcation, surveying and recordation processes themselves using low cost processes and mobile technology.
  • High resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) - for fast paced participatory adjudication and mapping programmes in rural areas.
  • Low altitude remotely sensed imagery (LARSI) - imagery captured by lightweight and unmanned aircraft equipped with a camera, GNSS receiver and other positioning tools. Like HRSI, the imagery can be used to speed up adjudication and mapping programmes. The higher resolutions available enable utility in more built up areas.
  • The pro-poor land recordation system - a set of transparent principles and processes developed by UN-Habitat that enable the recordation and maintenance of land interests in places where individuals might live on less than USD 2 a day.

 

Finally, I would like to highlight a group of ubiquitous positioning technologies in rapid development that may revolutionize cadastre and land administration in mid-term (please see my post at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140916160052-14369444-cyberland-towards-an-ubiquitous-intelligent-land?trk=mp-reader-card where this subject is further developed).

 

Institutional issues

Several institutional issues arise within Land Management. Summarizing I will present five of them:

 

  • The creation of data in digital form is necessary, but not sufficient, for effective land administration to occur. Experience to date suggests that it is essential that the legal, political, economic, and social issues also be addressed. Given that any inherent problems can be overcome, significant benefits should ensue (Dale & McLaren, 2005); and
  • In advanced systems, integrated cadastral layers within a jurisdiction’s SDI ideally deliver spatially enabled LAS to support the multipurpose of tenure, use, value and development. However building this kind of interaction between these four functions is not easy. The historic institutional silos, separate data bases, separate identifiers, and separate legal frameworks need to be reorganized. For most countries this presents another major land administration challenge(Williamson, et al., 2010);
  • The politicians and decision makers in the land sector are key in this change process and need to become advocates of change through understanding the social and economic benefits of this journey of change. This will then allow any legal framework and professional barriers to be dismantled (Enemark, et al., 2014);
  • Land information now assumes far more significance that it did in the comparatively simple times of 19th and 20th centuries when it was collected and maintained in silo agencies. Land information must now be shared across agencies and throughout a nation to enable the delivery of spatially enabled societies (see Annex 1 where this subject is further developed). The challenge to land registries are not new: in all the democracies, these agencies are being asked to accept radical change in order to meet social and economic needs (Wallace, et al., 2010).
  • In the Portuguese Cadastre case Silva’s thesis (Silva, 2005) points out “The conclusion is that it is not likely that any development will take place in the short term, since it is not foreseeable that a development agent will emerge.”, and related causes of development to stakeholder conīŦgurations(Çagdas & Stubkjær, 2008), which is highlighted by (Enemark, et al., 2014) when its argued that, the largest change will be focused on the public sector where this may involve institutional and organisational reforms, including legal framework, processes and procedures, and awareness in terms of incentives and accountability.

 

On the other hand, Land Administration Systems are not an end in itself but facilitate the implementation of the land policies within the context of a wider national land management framework. Land administration activities are, not just about technical or administrative processes. The activities are basically political and reflect the accepted social concepts concerning people, rights, and land objects with regard to land tenure, land markets, land taxation, land-use control, land development, and environmental management. Land administration systems therefore need high-level political support and recognition (Enemark, 2009).A last statement from UN-GGIM “Future trends in geospatial information management: the five to ten year vision, July 2013” (Carpenter & Snell, 2013), about the vital future role of governments in geospatial provision and management:

 

  • The increasing use of authoritative, trusted geospatial information will drive adoption of geospatial information and ensure that it reaches ubiquity in the government and business decision-making process, as well as in the consumer sphere. Increasing recognition of the value inherent in the data means that NMCAs are likely to become more closely aligned with other ‘official’ bodies in government who look after, for example, statistics, the economy or land. Governments will have a vital role in ensuring that frameworks are in place that will enable the effective cooperation and collaboration between the plurality of actors that will increasingly be involved in the provision and management of geospatial information, and in ensuring that the benefits that a spatially-enabled society has the potential to offer, are realised.

 

PS: This text is extracted from my Master's Thesis in GIS and Science (published at RUN: The implementation of an Enterprise Geographical Information System to support Cadastre and Expropriation activitie… ) Dissertation's State of Art Chapter 2.

Bibliography

Bennett, R., 2012. The 'cadastral divide': A view from the bridge. [Online]
Available at: http://www.geospatialworld.net/images/magazines/GeospatialWorld-June-2012-42-45%20Rohan.pdf
[Accessed 04 03 2014].

Bennett, R. et al., 2011. Cadastral futures: building a new vision for the nature and role cadastres. [Online]
Available at: https://www.fig.net/pub/monthly_articles/june_2011/june_2011_bennett_rajabifard_et_al.html
[Accessed 18 03 2014].

Çagdas, V. & Stubkjær, E., 2008. Doctoral research on cadastral development.[Online]
Available at: http://vbn.aau.dk/files/16329650/_agdas_stubkj_r.pdf
[Accessed 15 07 2014].

Carpenter, J. & Snell, J., 2013. Future trends in geospatial information management: the five to ten year vision. [Online]
Available at: http://ggim.un.org/docs/Future-trends.pdf
[Accessed 15 07 2014].

Comtesse, X. & Pauletto, G., 2012. Cadastre: Vision for the Future - The Impact of New Dimensions. [Online]
Available at: http://www.fig.net/pub/monthly_articles/february_2012/february_2012_comtesse_pauletto.pdf
[Accessed 21 03 2014].

Dale, P. F. & McLaren, R. A., 2005. GIS in land administration. In: Harlow & Longman, eds. Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Management and Applications. Abridged Edition ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 859-875.

Enemark, S., 2009. Land Administration and Cadastral Systems in support of Sustainable Land Governance- a Global Approach. [Online]
Available at: http://vbn.aau.dk/files/17634544/Re-Engineering_the_Cadastre_to_Support_E-Government.pdf
[Accessed 18 03 2014].

Enemark, S., Bell, K. C., Lemmen, C. & McLaren, R., 2014. Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration. [Online]
Available at: http://www.fig.net/pub/figpub/pub60/Figpub60.pdf
[Accessed 17 03 2014].

LINZ, 2014. Cadastre 2034. A 10-20 Year Strategy for developing the cadastral system: Knowing the ‘where’ of land-related rights. [Online]
Available at: http://www.linz.govt.nz/sites/default/files/docs/cadastre_strategy_web4.pdf
[Accessed 27 02 2014].

Silva, M. A., 2005. Modelling Causes of Cadastral Development - Cases in Portugal and Spain during the last two decades. [Online]
Available at: http://people.plan.aau.dk/~masilva/MariaASilva_PhD_Thesis.pdf
[Accessed 15 07 2014].

Steudler, D. & Rajabifard, A., 2012. Spatially Enabled Society. [Online]
Available at: http://www.fig.net/pub/figpub/pub58/figpub58.pdf
[Accessed 04 03 2014].

Wallace, J. et al., 2010. Spatially Enabling Land Administration: Drivers, Initiatives and Future Directions for Australia. [Online]
Available at: http://soc.kuleuven.be/io/english/research/publication/book-spatially-enabling-society-research-emerging-trends-and-critical-assessment
[Accessed 18 03 2014].

Williamson, I., Enemark, S., Wallace, J. & Rajabifard, A., 2010. Land administration for sustainable development. [Online]
Available at: http://www.fig.net/pub/fig2010/papers/ts03a/ts03a_williamson_enemark_et_al_4103.pdf
[Accessed 19 10 2013].

The INSPIRE directive. Overview

Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishes an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Union (EC, 2007). It came into force on 15 May 2007 and its full implementation is required by 2019.

It has been known since then as INSPIRE Directive, and aims to establish an infrastructure for spatial information to support European Union environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment.

The Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe is based on infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 28 sovereign Member States of the European Union. All the spatial data that is part of INSPIRE comes via the organisations responsible in the Member States and this EU-wide SDI is developed in a decentralised way, building on the SDIs and related activities established and maintained by the Member States (Craglia, 2014). In Figure 29, a group of seven INSPIRE competencies are listed and classified in three ranks (very low / low; average; and high / very high), illustrating the involvement levels in INSPIRE by the European Geo-ICT companies private sector (Cipriano, et al., 2013).

Figure 29 - INSPIRE competencies (Cipriano, et al., 2013)

The six principal objectives of INSPIRE are:

  • Data should be collected once and maintained at the level where this can be done most effectively;
  • It should be possible to combine seamlessly spatial information from different sources across Europe and share it between many users and applications;
  • It should be possible for information collected at one level to be shared between all the different levels, e.g. detailed for detailed investigations, general for strategic purposes;
  • Geographic information needed for good governance at all levels should be abundant and widely available under conditions that do not restrain its extensive use;
  • It should be easy to discover which geographic information is available, fits the needs for a particular use and under which conditions it can be acquired and used;
  • Geographic data should become easy to understand and interpret because it can be visualized within the appropriate context and selected in a user-friendly way.

 

According to (Craglia, 2014), the prime purpose of INSPIRE is to support environmental policy, and overcome barriers affecting the availability and accessibility of relevant data. These barriers include: inconsistencies in spatial data collection; lack or incomplete documentation of available spatial data; lack of compatibility among spatial datasets that cannot, therefore, be combined with others; incompatible SDI initiatives in the Member States that often function only in isolation; cultural, institutional, financial and legal barriers preventing or delaying the sharing of existing spatial data.The key elements of the INSPIRE Directive to overcome these barriers include (Craglia, 2014):

 

  • Metadata to describe existing information resources so that they can be more easily found and accessed;
  • Harmonisation of key spatial data themes needed to support environmental policies in the Union;
  • Agreements on network services and technologies to allow discovery, view, download of information resources, and access to related services;
  • Policy agreements on sharing and access, including licensing and charging;
  • Coordination and monitoring mechanisms.

 

Figure 30 - Knowledge of INSPIRE (Cipriano, et al., 2013)

 

Moreover, in Figure 30, according to (Cipriano, et al., 2013) a group of eight knowledge of INSPIRE categories are listed and classified in three ranks (very low / low; average; and high / very high) illustrating the awareness levels in INSPIRE by the European Geo-ICT companies private sector (Cipriano, et al., 2013).Therefore, INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by all Member States of the European Union. It addresses 34 spatial data themes (EC, 2008), divided in three annexes: annex I (9 themes, including cadastral parcels) and annex II (4 themes) mainly comprising reference data; and annex III (21 themes - thematic data). Their key components are specified through technical implementing rules.Furthermore, according to the report “INSPIRE Public Consultation 2014” (Joint Research Centre, 2014) where were presented the findings of the public consultation on INSPIRE organised by the European Commission in December 2013-February 2014, there was an almost unanimous view across all participants in the previously referred consultation that the objectives of INSPIRE of making spatial data and services more easily shared and used are still as pertinent as ever.In what concerns, the INSPIRE Directive in Portugal, it can be found a concise overview at “INSPIRE implementation in Portugal: the operational approach” (Reis, et al., 2012), “The role of R&D projects in the implementation of the INSPIRE directive in Portugal” (Reis, 2012) and “Monitoring and Reporting INSPIRE Directive in Portugal” (Reis, et al., 2013).The main reference about INSPIRE Directive in Portugal is the Decree-Law n. º 180/2009 (MAOTDR, 2009), of August 7, 2009, to which I make a brief reference in the following points. In summary, it:

 

  • Review the national spatial data infrastructure - National System for Geographic Information (SNIG);
  • Transpose the INSPIRE Directive into national law; and
  • Establishes rules for the creation of spatial data infrastructures in Portugal

According to (Geirinhas, et al., 2011), on 2011, the Portuguese strategy for INSPIRE implementation relied in four major vectors:

 

  • Organization: a major effort was placed in the creation of contact networks of public authorities, as the collaboration and joint involvement of national public authorities is considered a critical for the process success. The transposition enabled the identification of stakeholders’ contact points and the mandatory appointment of Metadata Managers;
  • Contents: Mainly focused on metadata through the creation of the National Metadata Profile and the development of a metadata production and editing tool – MIG Editor –made freely available to all. Moreover, IGP developed geowebservices for some of its spatial data that are available through SNIG;
  • Capacity Building: Training actions in relevant areas such as metadata and geowebservices have been undertaken - training actions have been organised for approximately 262 metadata managers and a training plan has been set up on geowebservices;
  • Dissemination: Performed through the INSPIRE-PT website, the contact point’s networks of public authorities and several public sessions organised in various locations around the country during recent years. It contributed to raise awareness on the INSPIRE concept and principles, spread information, disseminate developments already achieved within European SDI projects in which Portugal is participating and share knowledge associated to best practices.

Cadastral parcels data theme

In INSPIRE Directive Annex I, theme 6 the cadastral parcels are referred as areas defined by cadastral registers or equivalent (EC, 2011) (EC, 2009).

According to (Salzmann & Ernst, 2008) the cadastral parcel will be a core spatial data theme in the European SDI through the INSPIRE-directive.

In Figure 31, according to (Seifert, 2012) is presented the INSPIRE UML data model for cadastral parcels.

Figure 31 - INSPIRE UML data model for cadastral parcels (Seifert, 2012)

Moreover, in the INSPIRE context, cadastral parcels focus on the geographical part of cadastral data (e. g. they are only considered in INSPIRE scope if they are available as vector data) and will be mainly used as locators for geo-information in general, including environmental data. As much as possible, in the INSPIRE context, cadastral parcels should be forming a partition of national territory. Rights and owners are out of the INSPIRE scope, but buildings, land use, and addresses are considered in other INSPIRE themes.

The benefits of Cadastral Information for themes in INSPIRE Annexes II and III were specified by a joint working group consisting of members of the Permanent Committee on Cadastre (PCC) and EuroGeographics (Knowledge Exchange Network on Cadastre and Land Registry) (PCC; EuroGeographics, 2011)

Finally, as stated by (Martín-Varés & Salzmann, 2009) at the same time the ubiquitous presence of cadastres and land registries throughout Europe warrants the maintenance at the national level of the cadastral parcel and is at the basis of making the cadastral parcel a sustainable core element within the European spatial data infrastructure.

The arguments above are integrated and consolidated in the EuroGeographics vision on geospatial reference data presented in Figure 32.

Figure 32 - The EuroGeographics vision on geospatial reference data (Jakobsson, 2012)

PS: This text is extracted from my Master's Thesis in GIS and Science (published at http://hdl.handle.net/10362/13786) Dissertation's State of Art Chapter 2.

Bibliography

Cipriano, P., Easton, C., Roglia, E. & Vancauwenberghe, G., 2013. SME Inspire - D1.3 Final Report. [Online]
Available at: http://www.smespire.eu/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2014/03/D1.3_FinalReport_1.0.pdf
[Accessed 11 03 2014].

Craglia, M., 2014. INSPIRE: Towards a Participatory Digital Earth. [Online]
Available at: http://geospatialworld.net/Magazine/MArticleView.aspx?aid=30867
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EC, 2007. Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007. [Online]
Available at: http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.cfm
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EC, 2008. European Community. Inspire - Data Specifications. [Online]
Available at: http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.cfm/pageid/2/list/7
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EC, 2009. Inspire Forum - Cadastral parcels. [Online]
Available at: http://inspire-forum.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pg/pages/view/1806/cadastral-parcels
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EC, 2011. European Community. Inspire - Cadastral Parcels. [Online]
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Geirinhas, J., Fonseca, A. & Julião, R. P., 2011. THE RENEWAL OF SNIG UNDER THE INSPIRE UMBRELLA. [Online]
Available at: http://www.idee.es/resources/presentaciones/JIIDE11/Articulo-66.pdf
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Jakobsson, A., 2012. European Location Framework. [Online]
Available at: http://www.eurogeographics.org/sites/default/files/E.L.F%20white%20paper%20v.1.0.pdf
[Accessed 14 03 2014].

Joint Research Centre, 2014. INSPIRE Public Consultation 2014. [Online]
Available at: http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/reports/consultations/INSPIRE_Public_Consultation_Report_final.pdf
[Accessed 11 07 2017].

MAOTDR, 2009. Decreto-Lei n.º 180/2009 de 7 de Agosto. [Online]
Available at: http://www.igeo.pt/instituto/DL180_2009.pdf
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Martín-Varés, A. V. & Salzmann, M., 2009. The Establishment of the Cadastral Parcel as a Core Element in the European SDI - Lessons Learned and View Towards Inspiring Applications.. [Online]
Available at: http://www.gsdi.org/gsdiconf/gsdi11/papers/pdf/74.pdf
[Accessed 06 03 2014].

PCC; EuroGeographics, 2011. Cadastre iNSPIREd! - Ci! The benefits of Cadastral Information for themes in INSPIRE Annexes II and III. [Online]
Available at: http://www.eurogeographics.org/sites/default/files/Cadastre%20iNSPIREd_%20Final_report_032011_1%5B1%5D.pdf
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Cadastre in Europe

There is no single coherent solution in the field of cadastre within Europe at the current time. The institutional evolution, applied services as well as the definition of cadastre differ from country to country due to the influence of culture, history and other societal reasons. On the continent, cadastral GIS are acknowledged as an inevitable and supportive complement to land registry and together they serve not only the security of property rights, but directly foster the economic-societal prosperity and facilitate sustainable development (Remetey-Fülöpp, 2004).

According to (PCC; EuroGeographics, 2011) in Europe, “cadastre” includes several functions and types of information and not only strictly those of the “classical real estate” cadastre itself. The content of the cadastre in the European countries is more or less defined in each country’s relevant legislation. An overview of the cadastral systems in the EU member states can be found in “Cadastral Information System: a resource for the EU policies” PCC publications: volume I (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden) (PCC, 2008); volume II (Cyprus, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia) (PCC, 2009); volume III (Estonia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Denmark, Romania and Portugal) (PCC, 2009b) and volume IV (Bulgaria, France, Ireland, Latvia. Malta, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) (PCC, 2010), as well as in the results of the project “The role of the Cadastral parcel” (EuroGeographics; PCC, 2007), and the Cadastres and Land Registries reports (Kersten, et al., 2008) and (Kersten, et al., 2010).

Figure 24 - National coverage of cadastre in European Union (EuroGeographics; PCC, 2007)

Furthermore, in Figure 24, above, is presented the national coverage of cadastre in European Union according to (EuroGeographics; PCC, 2007).

In terms of European cadastral and national mapping organizations GIS technology used, it’s verified a predominance of Esri technology according to ArcNews 2011 Spring issue (Esri, 2011), as could be seen in Figure 25.

Figure 25 - Green represents European cadastral and national mapping organizations using Esri technology (Esri, 2011)

Moreover, a mention should also be made to EuroGeographics Cadastre and land registration knowledge exchange network, which has the goal of facilitating the exchange of 'best practice' to help its members to achieve a vision for cadastre and land registration in Europe 2012 (EuroGeographics, 2012a). Their work supports the decision makers of the EuroGeographics member organisations and other interested parties in creating effective spatial data infrastructures, securing (inter)national land administrations and contributing to sustainable development (EuroGeographics, 2012).

Finally, in Figure 26 is presented the web of organizational interaction of various European entities and initiatives / services relative to one another mapping the relationships between them according to (Grimsley & Roll, 2014), where it’s highlighted the main connections and central role of land thematic in Europe.

Figure 26 - The web of organizational interaction of various European entities and initiatives (Grimsley & Roll, 2014)

 

Cadastre in Portugal. Brief overview.

A very comprehensive overview of the Cadastre in Portugal from the beginning of XIX century till 2009, can be found in “The Cadastral System in Portugal” (PCC, 2009b) in terms of history and purposes of the cadastre, development of the institutional and organisational structure, financial and organisational issues and decentralisation, involvement of the private sector. Moreover this thematic can be revisited (in Portuguese) at (Julião, 2009).

The Portuguese cadastre, as many other in most of the South and West of continental Europe (PCC, 2008) (PCC, 2009) (PCC, 2009a) (PCC, 2010), was created on the basis of the Napoleonic Cadastre (Zevenbergen, 2002) (Williamson, 1997), purely to tax significant economical parcels which, at that time, were mainly rural parcels (Julião, et al., 2010) (Castanheira, 2012).

Nowadays in Portugal, cadastre is defined as an exhaustive, methodical and updated inventory that characterizes and identifies real estate properties in a certain territory (DGT, 2014) (Julião, et al., 2010), thus contributing to a paradigm shift in Portuguese cadastre: from tax purpose to multipurpose, according to (Julião, et al., 2010a), as shown in Figure 28.

Portugal still has two cadastral systems running, with different data models (IGP, 2009):

  • Rural Property Cadastre:
    • The rural property cadastre has more entities, due to the fact that is tax driven and has additional elements regarding the rural property evaluation, such as land use. Its main elements are: parcels, sub-parcels, rural constructions, property marks, administrative boundaries and marks.
    • Currently is being carried on a migration process towards its integral digitalization (Mira & Bica, 2011), (IGP, 2010)
  • Real Property Cadastre:
    • Legal Parcel definition: Parcel, designated as “prédio”, is a juridical autonomous limited part of land, which includes water, plantations, buildings and constructions of any nature incorporated in it.
    • Although a parcel boundary can be defined by a building, cadastre model doesn’t include them.
    • The basic spatial elements of the cadastre: parcel, its boundaries and the corresponding defining property marks.
    • There is also a special element, designated as no-parcel areas, which represents the areas not defined as parcels, which include public areas, unknown owner areas and litigation areas.
    • The cadastre registers the parcel identification number – NIP, the corresponding identification codes from the land registry and real estate tax, the declared owner and corresponding personal data.

 

Figure 28 - Paradigm shift: from tax purpose to multipurpose (Julião, et al., 2010a)

 

Portuguese cadastre legislation references

 

Moreover, the Portuguese cadastre legislation main references, till February 2014, are the following:

  • Council of Ministers Resolution n.º 56/2012 (guidelines and strategies for rural management and Cadastre) (PCM, 2012);
  • Decree Law n.º 65/2011 (extends to forest intervention areas the experimental implementation, operation and access to cadastral information) (MAOT, 2011);
  • Decree Law n.º 224/2007 (approves the scheme of experimental implementation, operation and access to cadastral information, aiming at the creation of the Cadastral Information Management and Operation National System - SINERGIC) (MAOTDR, 2007);
  • Council of Ministers Resolution n.º 45/2006 (Cadastral Information Management and Operation National System (SINERGIC) guidelines and overall objectives) (PCM, 2006);
  • Decree Law n.º 172/95 (approves the Property Cadastre Regulation) (MPAT, 1995);
  • Decree Law n. º 143/82 (assigns the Cadastral and Geographic Institute the exclusive responsibility for the preparation and maintenance of all basic cartography for the construction of the Portuguese Cadastral Map and establishes the essentials legal instruments to achieve these objectives) (MFP, 1982).

 

PS: This text is extracted from my Master's Thesis in GIS and Science (published at http://hdl.handle.net/10362/13786) Dissertation's State of Art Chapter 2.

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Dear colleagues,

On July 25, 2014 I defended, with success, my Master's thesis in GIS and Science entitled "The implementation of an Enterprise Geographical Information System to support Cadastre and Expropriation activities. The case of Ferbritas Cadastre Information System.", at NOVA IMS (former ISEGI/NOVA), Lisbon - Portugal (http://www.slideshare.net/FernandoGil/fernando-gil-master-thesis-public-presentation)

My thesis is published at RUN: The implementation of an Enterprise Geographical Information System to support Cadastre and Expropriation activitie… . I invite you all to go to NOVA IMS college library site and take a look in it.

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